HMGB1 Isoforms Kit
HMGB1 Isoforms Kit is an explorative kit thought to test different redox isoforms of HMGB1.
The kit contains 3 different isoforms of HMGB1:
Different activities of HMGB1 have been attributed to different biochemical forms that bind to specific receptors (Yang et al.,2012).
- Fully reduced HMGB1 has all the three cysteines completely reduced and is a potent chemoattractanct for many cell types by forming a heterocomplex with the chemokine CXCL12 and signaling via CXCR4 (rif PMCID: PMC3302219 ).
- Disulfide HMGB1 contains a disulfide bond between cysteines C23 and C45 and acts as a proinflammatory mediator by binding to TLR4 and RAGE receptors (Yang et al, 2012; Tirone et al, 2018).
- Terminally oxidized HMGB1 has all the cysteines oxidized to sulfonates and has no activity, either as a chemoattractant or in cytokine stimulation (Kazama et al,2008;Yang et al, 2012).It can be useful as negative control in your experiment.
The proteins we provide are the natural proteins, with no tags or additional amino acids.
HMGB1 has the sequence:
[“MGKGDPKKPR GKMSSYAFFV QTCREEHKKK HPDASVNFSE FSKKCSERWK TMSAKEKGKF EDMAKADKAR YEREMKTYIP PKGETKKKFK DPNAPKRPPS AFFLFCSEYR PKIKGEHPGL SIGDVAKKLG EMWNNTAADD KQPYEKKAAK LKEKYEKDIA AYRAKGKPDA AKKGVVKAEK SKKKKEEEDD EEDEEDEEEE EEEEDEDEEE DDDDE” ]
Molecular Mass: HMGB1 consists of 215 amino acid residues and has a calculated molecular mass of approximately 24.8 kDa. It migrates at a position of approximately 30 kD in SDS-PAGE gels, possibly because of the unusual number of positively charged amino acids it contains.
Structure: HMGB1 consists of two fairly rigid, L-shaped DNA-binding domains, each referred to as a ‘HMG box’, and an unstructured tail that ends with 30 consecutive negatively charged amino acids.
Species specificity: the sequence and structure of HMGB1 have been strictly conserved during evolution, and HMGB1 proteins from all mammals are almost identical (Sessa L, Bianchi ME. The evolution of High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) chromatin proteins in multicellular animals. Gene 2007, 387:133-40).
Purity: The purified protein is >95% homogeneous (electrophoresis and mass spectrometry). It contains no nucleic acids, nor IL-1beta.
Endotoxin Level: The purified protein is free from LPS (Cambrex Limulus Amoebocyte Assay QCL-1000, <0.1 EU/µg of protein).
Storage: 2-8°C. Once the proteins are resuspended they can be stored frozen (-20°C).
This product is intended for research only, and cannot be used on humans.
Complete Name: High Mobility Group 1 Isoform kit
Other Names: Amphoterin-1, High mobility group protein 1,HMG-1, SBP-1, high mobility group protein B1, high-mobility group box 1, Amphoterin, HMG1, HMGB1, SBP-1, recombinant HMGB1, kit HMGB1